SACROILIAC JOINT SPRAIN
Sacroiliac joint sprain occurs when the ligaments, which are the strongest ligaments in the body, are pulled beyond their limits. This can happen due to:
Poor posture is essentially 'micro trauma' over long periods of time and is the most common cause of SI subluxation. The SI joints can be subluxated by too much sustained flexion, extension or torsion. Sitting in a car or at a desk for hours at a time creates too much flexion, which causes straining of posterior ligaments. Sleeping prone, or face down, often creates too much extension, which causes compression in the SI joint. Leg-crossing while sitting or laying supine, or face up, often creates too much torsion, which strains ligaments and misaligns the SI joint surface.
Unexpected jarring-type accidents, such as slips and falls or tripping, are the most common traumas leading to SI subluxation because of the compression force transmitted into the joint, which either slightly misaligns or 'jams'. Car accidents can cause SI subluxations, but this force is usually of a shearing nature. Sport injuries, depending on the nature of the impact, can cause subluxations due to either compression or shearing forces. A subluxated SI joint can affect surrounding blood flow, nerve function and muscle tension.
Women are at risk for developing SI joint problems in pregnancy and after childbirth. During pregnancy a female hormone is released that allows the ligaments in the pelvis to relax. This is necessary so that during a normal birth, the female pelvis can stretch enough to allow the baby through the ring of the pelvis. This stretching results in changes to the SI joints, making them 'hyper mobile' - extra or overly mobile, thus vulnerable to injury. During pregnancy, the SI joints can cause discomfort both from the effects of the hormones that loosen the joints, and from the stress of carrying a growing baby in the pelvis, and from fixations that may form in the sacroiliac joint. Fairly commonly too pregnant women suffer from pubic bone pain that may continue long after the pregnancy.
Both osteoarthritis---the 'wear and tear' type, and inflammatory types of arthritis such as gout, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis cause SI joint destruction. Joint destruction invariably causes misalignments and dysfunction. SI subluxations created from mild to moderate arthritis can become unstable with movement and often create popping or clicking sounds, although severe arthritis often leads to complete SI fusion.
Any condition that causes an abnormal walking pattern increases stress on the SI joints. This includes having one leg shorter than the other, a previously fractured femur (thigh bone), chronic leg-crossing; obesity; and any sort of limping due to pain in the hip, knee, ankle, or foot.
The piriformis muscle is a small muscle in the middle of your buttock. If the piriformis muscle goes into spasm and becomes inflamed, it will affect the sacroiliac joint and cause extreme SI joint pain. Also, since the sciatic nerve runs underneath the piriformis muscle, when the piriformis muscle becomes tight and inflamed it can irritate the sciatic nerve and cause severe pain in the buttocks and down the leg. This pain is commonly mistaken for 'sciatica' related to a disc bulge (slipped disc).
joint injuries are treated through the use of spinal manipulation (spinal adjusting) to re-position the joint to its optimal bio-mechanical position to promote healing in proper spinal alignment.